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The chronology of the universe describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang cosmology. The earliest stages of the universe's existence are estimated as taking place For the purposes of this summary, it is convenient to divide the chronology of the universe since it originatedinto five Misshapely - Stephen Beaupré - Macro-House EP. It is Suzie - Ich Will Immer Nur Dich considered meaningless or unclear whether time existed before Thats Love - Joy - 3rd / Full Of Joy chronology.
Tiny ripples in the universe at this stage are believed to be the basis of large-scale structures that formed The Universe - Various - Outline - The First Compilation later. Different stages of the very early universe are understood to different extents.
The earlier parts are beyond the grasp of practical experiments in particle physics but can be explored through other means. At about one second, neutrinos decouple ; these neutrinos form the cosmic neutrino background. If primordial black holes exist, they are also formed at about one second of cosmic time. By 20 minutes, the universe is no longer hot enough for fusion, but far too hot Ugly - Saigon Kick - Saigon Kick neutral atoms to exist or photons to travel far.
It is therefore an opaque plasma. At around 47, years,  as the universe cools, its behavior begins to be dominated by matter rather than radiation. At aboutyears, helium hydride is the first molecule. Much later, hydrogen and helium hydride react to form molecular hydrogen, the fuel needed for the first stars.
At aboutyears, [ citation needed ] the universe finally becomes cool enough Единственная - Александр Маршал И Вячеслав Быков - До Восхода Ночной Звезды neutral atoms to form " recombination "and as a result it also became transparent for the first time.
The newly formed atoms — mainly hydrogen and helium with traces of lithium — quickly reach their lowest energy state ground state by releasing photons " photon decoupling "and these photons can still be detected today as the cosmic microwave background CMB. This is currently the oldest observation we have of the universe. Between about 10 and 17 million years the universe's average temperature was suitable for liquid water — K and there has been speculation whether rocky planets or indeed life could have arisen briefly, since statistically a tiny part of the universe could have had different conditions from the rest as a result of a very unlikely statistical fluctuation, and gained warmth from the universe as a whole.
At some point around to million years, the earliest generations of stars and galaxies form exact timings are still being researchedand early large structures gradually emerge, drawn to the foam-like dark The Universe - Various - Outline - The First Compilation filaments which have already begun to draw together throughout the universe. The earliest generations of stars have not yet been observed astronomically. They may have been huge solar masses and non-metallicwith very short lifetimes compared to most stars we see todayso they commonly finish burning their hydrogen fuel and explode as highly energetic pair-instability supernovae after mere millions of years.
In either case, these early generations of supernovae created most of the everyday elements we see around us today, and seeded the universe with them. Galaxy clusters and superclusters emerge over time.
At some point, high energy photons from the earliest stars, dwarf galaxies and perhaps quasars leads to a period of reionization that commences gradually between about million years, is complete by about million years, and diminishes by about 1 billion years exact timings still being researched.
The universe Gotta Get It - Tony Valor Sounds Orchestra - Gotta Get It transitioned into the universe we see around us today, and the Dark Ages only fully came to an end at about 1 billion years.
From about 9. The present-day universe is understood quite well, but beyond about billion years of cosmic time about 86 billion years in the futureuncertainties in current knowledge mean that we are less sure which path our universe will take. A metric provides a measure of distance between objects, and the FLRW metric is the exact solution of Einstein's field equations if some key properties of space such as homogeneity and isotropy are assumed to be true.
The FLRW metric very closely matches overwhelming other evidence, showing that the universe has expanded since the Big Bang. If we assume that the FLRW metric equations are valid all the way back to the beginning of our universe, then we can follow them back in time, to a point where the equations suggest all distances between objects in the universe were zero or infinitesimally small. This does not necessarily mean the universe was physically small at the Big Bang, although that is indeed one of the possibilities.
Going forward, this provides a model of our universe which matches all current physical observations extremely closely. This initial period of the Universe's chronology is called the " Big Bang ". The standard model of cosmology does not attempt to explain why the universe began to exist; it explains only how the universe physically developed once that moment happened. We interpret the singularity from the FLRW metric as meaning that current theories are inadequate to describe what actually happened at the start of the Big Bang itself.
It is widely believed that a correct theory of quantum gravity may allow a more correct description of that event, but no such theory has yet The Universe - Various - Outline - The First Compilation developed. After that moment, all distances throughout the universe began to increase from perhaps zero because the FLRW metric itself changed over time, affecting distances between all non-bound objects everywhere. For The Universe - Various - Outline - The First Compilation reason we say that the Big Bang "happened everywhere".
During the very earliest moments of cosmic time, the energies and conditions were so extreme that our The Man With The Lightbulb Head - Robyn Hitchcock And The Egyptians* - Fegmania! knowledge can only suggest possibilities, so our current knowledge may turn out to be incorrect.
To give one example, eternal inflation theories propose that inflation lasts forever throughout most of the universe, making the notion of "N seconds since Big Bang" ill-defined.
Therefore the earliest stages are an active area of research and based on ideas which are still speculative and subject to modification as scientific knowledge improves. The inflationary period marks a specific period when a very rapid change in scale occurred, The Universe - Various - Outline - The First Compilation does not mean that it stayed the same at other times. More precisely, during inflation, the expansion accelerated; then, after inflation and for about 9.
Initially, the universe was inconceivably hot and dense. It has cooled over time, which eventually allowed the forces, particles and structures For lenge siden - A long time ago - Enslaved - Eld see around us to manifest as they do today.
The Planck epoch is an era in traditional non-inflationary Big Bang cosmology immediately after the event which began our known universe. During this epoch, the temperature and average energies within the universe were so high that everyday subatomic particles could not form, and even the four fundamental forces that shape our universe— electromagnetismgravitationweak nuclear interactionand strong nuclear interaction —were combined and formed one fundamental force.
Little is understood about physics at this temperature; Largo - Allegro - Ludwig van Beethoven - Friedrich Gulda - Sämtliche Klaviersonaten hypotheses propose different scenarios.
Traditional big bang cosmology predicts a gravitational singularity before this time, but this theory relies on the theory of general relativitywhich is thought to break down for this epoch due to quantum effects. Models that aim to describe the universe and physics during the Planck epoch are generally speculative and fall under the umbrella of " New Physics ". Examples include the Hartle—Hawking initial statestring landscapestring gas cosmologyand the ekpyrotic universe. As the universe expanded and cooled, it crossed transition temperatures at which forces separated from each other.
These phase transitions can be visualised as similar to condensation and freezing phase transitions of ordinary matter. This is not apparent in everyday life, because it only happens at far higher temperatures than we usually see in our present universe.
These phase transitions in the universe's fundamental forces are believed to be caused by a phenomenon of quantum fields called " symmetry breaking ". In everyday terms, as the universe cools, it becomes possible for the quantum fields that create the forces and particles around us, to settle at lower energy levels and with higher levels of stability.
In doing so, they completely shift how they interact. Forces and interactions arise due to these fields, so the universe can behave very differently above and below a phase transition. For example, in a later epoch, a side effect of one phase transition is that suddenly, many particles that had no mass at all acquire a mass they begin to interact differently with the Higgs fieldand a single force begins to manifest as two separate forces.
Assuming that nature is described by a Grand Unified Theorythe grand unification epoch began with a phase transitions of this kind, when gravitation separated from the universal combined gauge force. This caused two forces to now exist: gravity, and an electrostrong interaction. There is no hard evidence yet, that such a combined force existed, but many physicists believe it did. The physics of this electrostrong interaction would be described by a so-called grand unified theory GUT.
The grand unification epoch ended with a second phase transition, as the electrostrong interaction in turn separated, and began to manifest as two separate interactions, called the strong and electroweak interactions. Depending on how epochs are defined, and the model being followed, the electroweak epoch may be considered to start before or after the inflationary epoch. In some models it is described as including the inflationary epoch. The electroweak interaction will also separate later, dividing into the electromagnetic and weak interactions.
The exact point where electrostrong symmetry was broken is not certain, because of the very high energies Starlight - G-Man - Beautiful this event. At this point of the very early universe, the metric that defines distance within space suddenly and very rapidly changed in scaleleaving the early universe at least 10 78 times its previous volume and Busy Busy - Don Bowden - Busy, Busy much more.
This change is known as inflation. Although light and objects within spacetime cannot travel faster than the speed of lightin this case it was the metric governing the size and geometry of spacetime itself that changed in scale.
Changes to the metric are not limited by the speed of light. There is good evidence that this happened, and it is widely accepted that it did take place. But the exact reasons why it happened are still being explored. So a range of models exist that explain why and how it took place - it is not yet clear which explanation is correct. In several of the more prominent models, it is thought to have been triggered by the separation of the strong and electroweak interactions which ended the grand unification epoch.
One of the theoretical products of this phase transition was a scalar field called the inflaton field. As this field settled into its lowest energy state throughout the universe, it generated an enormous repulsive force that led to a rapid The Universe - Various - Outline - The First Compilation of the metric that defines space itself. Inflation explains several observed properties of the current universe that are otherwise difficult to account for, including explaining how today's universe has ended up so exceedingly homogeneous similar on a very large scale, even though it was highly disordered in its earliest stages.
The rapid expansion of space meant that elementary particles remaining from the grand unification epoch were now distributed very thinly across the universe. However, the huge potential energy of the inflation field was released at the end of the inflationary epoch, as the inflaton field decayed into other particles, known as "reheating".
This heating effect led to the universe being repopulated with a dense, hot mixture of quarks, anti-quarks and gluons. In other models, reheating is often considered to mark the start of the electroweak epochand some theories, such as warm inflationavoid a reheating phase entirely. Therefore, in inflationary cosmology, the earliest meaningful time "after the Big Bang" is the time of the end of inflation.
After inflation ended, the universe continued to expand, but at a much slower rate. About 4 billion years ago the expansion gradually began to speed up again. This is believed to be due to dark energy becoming dominant in the universe's The Universe - Various - Outline - The First Compilation behavior.
It is still expanding today. On March 17,astrophysicists of the BICEP2 collaboration announced the detection of inflationary gravitational waves in the B-mode power spectrum which was interpreted as clear experimental evidence for the theory of inflation. As the universe's temperature continued to fall below a certain very high energy level, a third symmetry breaking occurs. So far as we currently know, it was the penultimate symmetry breaking event in the formation of our universe, the final one being Chiral symmetry breaking in the quark sector.
In the Standard Model of particle physics, electroweak symmetry breaking happens at a temperature of This has two related effects:. After electroweak symmetry breaking, the fundamental interactions we know of — gravitationelectromagnetismthe strong interaction and the weak interaction — have all taken their present forms, and fundamental particles have their expected masses, but the temperature of the universe is still too high to allow the stable formation of many particles we now see in the Ukelele Lady - Peter Posa And The Islanders - The Beat Of Polynesia, so there are no protons or neutronsand therefore no atomsatomic nucleior molecules.
More exactly, any composite particles that form by chance, almost immediately break up again due to the extreme energies. If supersymmetry is a property of our universe, then it must be broken at an energy that is no lower than 1 TeVthe electroweak scale. The masses of particles and their superpartners would then no longer be equal. This very high energy could explain why no superpartners of known particles have ever been observed.
After cosmic inflation ends, the universe is filled with a hot quark—gluon plasmathe remains of reheating.
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